It is true that Qur'an does not mention the name of the Pharaoh who unjustly oppressed Moses and the Children of Israel. When combined, the information provided by the Qur'an and the ancient Egyptian sources including the archaeological and documentary evidence, there are a sufficient number of clues that point towards the New Kingdom period in general and to the Pharaoh Ramesses -II in particular who reigned for about 66 years from 1279–1213 BCE. -(The Identification Of Pharaoh During The Time Of Moses by M S M Saifullah, ʿAbdullah David, and Mohammad Ghoniem.)
The Pharaoh in ancient Egypt was the political and religious leader of the people and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. The word 'pharaoh' is the Greek form of the Egyptian 'pero' or 'per-a-a', which was the designation for the royal residence and means 'Great House'. The name of the residence became associated with the ruler and, in time, was used exclusively for the leader of the people. The early monarchs of Egypt were not known as pharaohs but as kings. The honorific title of 'pharaoh' for a ruler did not appear until the period known as the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). Monarchs of the dynasties before the New Kingdom were addressed as 'your majesty' by foreign dignitaries and members of the court and as 'brother' by foreign rulers; both practices would continue after the king of Egypt came to be known as a pharaoh.
The Pharaoh who ruled Egypt during the time of Joseph was called Rayan bin al-Walid. Seeing how Joseph had saved the country from famine, the King gave him a lot of powers in running the affairs of the country. Therefore Joseph enjoyed a high standing and nobility in Egypt, and his people lived very comfortably. And later a King by the name of Qaboos bin Mus'ab took the power and named himself Ramesses-II. This king was a tyrant and oppressed the Israelis and with their free service, he built the city of Pi-Ramesses.
The haughtiness [disdain, dominance, and despair] of Ramesses-II, that carved on the pedestal, depicted by Shelley as-
"King of Kings am I, Osymandias.
If anyone would know how great I am and where I lie,
let him surpass one of my works."
Ramesses-II, born unknown, died July or August 1213 BCE; reigned not clear [but 1279–1213 BCE- as Manetho attributes], also known as "Ramesses the Great" was the Pharaoh during the time of Moses. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. His successors called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses-II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein.
Most Egyptologists today assumed that Ramesses-II enthroned on May 31, 1279, BCE, based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27. Estimates of his age at death vary; 90-96 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals (the first held after thirty years of a pharaoh's reign, and then every three years) during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings; his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881 and is now on display in the Cairo Museum.
The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria. He is also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "The justice of Rê is powerful – chosen of Rê".
Pharaoh who is ruling the Egypt died suddenly. He leaves no heirs nor nominated someone to be the heirs of his throne. So the Advisers panel nominated a person as the king. The man who nominated as the king of Egypt was not an Egyptian. His real name was Qaboos, birth place Balkh. In his youth, he was to try and make out. Once he arrived in the city Beusahama. There he met with a vagabond young man named Haman. A friendship quickly developed among them as both of them were of the same nature and character.
They go round and once reached in Egypt. In the meantime, they two did not have a single dime in their pocket. It was the Musk-melon season. They found the beauty of the ripe Musk-melon in a field beside the road. The owner of the field underwent working with the labor.
Qaboos and Haman wanted to eat a musk-melon telling their hunger to the owner. The owner said in disgust, "You are healthy and strong young man. Why you are begging? Do some jobs for your livelihood."
They said, 'What do we do now?'
He said: "Sell some of my musk-melon in the market".
Qaboos then leaving Haman to the owner as the bail, went the market to sell a lot of musk-melon and return in a short time after selling the lot and pay the owner the price of the lot.
The owner was fully satisfied and happily gave them two musk-melon to eat. He also gave Qaboos some money as the price of his service. The owner then proposed them to be his employer as permanently. The offer was very attractive, yet they refused to say goodbye and went ahead towards the Egyptian capital.
A Pharaoh is ruling the Egypt. Qaboos learn that he was liberal, humanitarian and an upright. So he applied to the court of Pharaoh for an interview with a hope of a Job. When the court announced his name to hear him, he laid his petition to the Pharaoh after usual greeting as- "O Sovereign generous! Without a job, I am unable to support myself. So give me a job, so that I can survive."
Pharaoh amused by the art and style of his proposal. He said, "O young man! What is your arts and craftsmanship that we may offer you a suitable Job?"
He said, 'O my Lord! I am capable to do any kind of Job, but I will be gratified if I would award any of the public services if a scope my Lord has in his hand."
At that time one of the employees brought a news to the king that the officer in charge of the royal cemetery had died. On hearing the news, Pharaoh said to him, "O young man, right now, we have a Job for you, as the in-charge of the royal cemetery. Do you want to take our offer?"
Qaboos said, "O My Lord! Surely, it will be my pleasure."
Qaboos was very clever with sharp intelligence. After receiving the authoritative power of the royal cemetery, he made an announcement in the city as- "Now, no one shall be permitted to bury any dead body without a permission from the authority as the funeral needed to pay a certain amount as burial fees."
In that year, suddenly a plague broke out in the city. And finding a plentiful supply of the dead body, Qaboos doubled the burial fees. And at the end of the year, he deposited a large amount of money to the royal treasury. The royal authorities were highly satisfied with his service and promoted him as Kotwal [a post of the chief Police officer] of the capital city. This time Qaboos made a good relationship with the prime minister of the royal court of Pharaoh. And having valuable gifts time to time from Qaboos, the Vizer now began to push his name to the Pharaoh, highlighting his various achievements as Kotwal.
The vizier died suddenly. And Pharaoh chooses none from his advisory panel as his prime minister but choose Qaboos as he was more confident with his ability. And Qaboos soon able to prove his competence and wisdom.
A few years of drought and famine in the country. Thinking about the hardships of the people, Qaboos appealed to Pharaoh as, "O Pharaoh! Your subjects are living in a highly hardships caused by the natural disasters over the years. You are generous and very much liberal to your subjects. So you should exempt them from their taxes this year."
Pharaoh accepted his argument and was agreed with a one-year tax exemption. Then, when the government decree declared to the country, all gave thanks to the Vizer Qaboos.
Then Pharaoh died suddenly. And as there was no heir to his throne, an emergency meeting of the senior officials nominated Vizer Qaboos as the heir to the throne.
When Qaboos was enthroned, he appoints his friend Haman as his adviser. Then declared himself as Ramesses-II after the name of a previous liberal ruler Ramesses, who ruled during the time of Joseph.
As long as Joseph [Yusuf] hold a public office and was alive, the Israel had a very good position in Egypt. They have their houses, food, and service and the Egyptians used to be heaved with them cordially. But as the days pass, their conditions started to change, Egyptians began to consider them as foreigners.
Whatever the number of the children of Jacob in Egypt, the number increased day by day. This rapid population growth was because of their religious beliefs, "Be prosper, reproduce and fill the earth." [Bible says- When Jacob went to live in Egypt, they were about 70 people, and then they multiplied to reach 603,550 during Moses.]
Moreover, Pharaoh Ramesses- II, the new ruler on the throne did not know anything about Joseph. He soon became alarmed of the political problem of public safety due to increasing the number of Israelis. So he gave orders that they should save daughters and killed the sons at the time of birth of their children. Qur'an says-
We recite to you from the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth for a people who believe. Indeed, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people into factions, oppressing a sector among them, slaughtering their [newborn] sons and keeping their females alive. Indeed, he was of the corrupters. And We wanted to confer a favor upon those who were oppressed in the land and make them leaders and make them inheritors And establish them in the land and show Pharaoh and [his minister] Haman and their soldiers through them that which they had feared.
And We inspired to the mother of Moses, "Suckle him; but when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear and do not grieve. Indeed, We will return him to you and will make him [one] of the messengers."
And the family of Pharaoh picked him up [out of the river] so that he would become to them an enemy and a [cause of] grief. Indeed, Pharaoh and Haman and their soldiers were deliberate sinners.-[28:3-8]
[Allah] said, "We will strengthen your arm through your brother and grant you both supremacy so they will not reach you. [It will be] through Our signs; you and those who follow you will be predominant."
But when Moses came to them with Our signs as clear evidence, they said, "This is not except invented magic, and we have not heard of this [religion] among our forefathers."
And Moses said, "My Lord is more knowing [than we or you] of who has come with guidance from Him and to whom will be the succession in the home. Indeed, wrongdoers do not succeed."
And Pharaoh said, "O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the liars."
And he was arrogant, he and his soldiers, in the land, without right, and they thought that they would not be returned to Us. -[28:36-39]
And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in tyranny and enmity until, when drowning overtook him, he said, "I believe that there is no deity except that in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of them."
Now? And you had disobeyed before and were of the corrupters? So today We will save you in the body that you may be to those who succeed you a sign. And indeed many, among the people, of Our signs, are heedless.-[10:90-92]
After the death of Ramesses- II, his brother al-Walid bin Mus'ab ascended the throne as Ramesses had no sons and daughters. al-Walid was the fourth in the chain of the Pharaohs of Egypt.
Not yet corrected.
# A man asked me, "Bro, Pharaoh during Moses [Pharaoh, who raised Moses and Pharaoh during Exodus] was Ramesses- II, is this information correct?
@ I said, Logically and Scripturally this information is Correct. Here are the proofs-
Pharaoh during Moses was Ramesses- II and he is believed to be the same pharaoh of the exodus on the basis of the information:
"Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Ramesses." -Exodus 1:11
And this Ramesses must be Ramesses-II because we are aware of the Biblical verse that Joseph lived in the "land of Ramesses" 400 years before Ramesses-II ... Bible says:
"So Joseph settled his father and his brothers and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Ramesses, as Pharaoh had ordered." -Genesis 47:11.
This means that Pharaoh during Moses cannot be Ramesses-I as there was another Ramesses during Joseph. So Pharaoh during Moses shall be Ramesses-II. Yet it should be noted that The kings of ancient Egypt during the time of Abraham [Genesis 12:10-20], Joseph [Genesis 41] and Moses [e.g., Exodus 2:15] are constantly addressed with the title "Pharaoh" in the Bible. The Qur'an, however, differs from the Bible: the sovereign of Egypt who was a contemporary of Joseph is named "King" (Arabic, Malik); whereas the Bible has named him "Pharaoh". As for the king who ruled during the time of Moses, the Qur'an repeatedly calls him "Pharaoh" (Arabic, firʿawn).
A king of 18th dynasty was the Pharaoh during the time of Moses and al-Qurtubi in his commentary of the Qur'an [Tafsir al-Qurtubi] cited that the name of this Pharaoh was Qaboos. - bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/ইসলাম ধর্মে মূসা, [cite note-1]
And for Ramesses the answer is hidden by this- sentence-“Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph”-(Exodus 1:8) Then another king, who knew nothing of Joseph, arose over Egypt. -(Acts 7:18)
What these verses mean? Why the king knew nothing of Joseph?
The rise of a “new king” in Ex. 1:8 must be understood as a new dynasty. In Acts 7:18, the Greek word for “different king,” which means “something that is not like the previous.” The statement “who did not know Joseph” means that this pharaoh has no knowledge of Egyptian history, for it is unlikely that Joseph’s act of saving Egypt and the surrounding world from starvation would have gone unrecorded and untaught. This suggests that the current Pharaoh did not come from a traditional Egyptian background.
"For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “In the beginning, my people went to live temporarily in Egypt; Assyria oppressed them for no good reason." -Isa. 52:4.
which refers to the pharaoh that oppressed the Israelites as being an Assyrian, a people group from the northern part of the Mesopotamia.
In ancient Egypt, a person ascended to the throne by virtue of a birth right or by being formally declared as the heir of the previous pharaoh.
The pharaoh during Moses held titular names such as "Lord of the Two Lands" and "High Priest of Every Temple."
"Bro, You just showed proof for supporting your answer then can we consider it as Truth?"
No. Logically we cannot take it as truth.
"What is that logic?"
if the truth had not been erased from the Book of Moses, God would not have given to David the second. And if the book of David had not been contaminated, God would not have given to Jesus the Gospel; Similarly, if the book of Jesus ie. Gospel had not been contaminated, God would not have given to Muhammad the Qur’an;
Thus the above scriptural proof is a Proof sure but shall never consider as truth without certified by the sealed scripture. And a sealed Scripture shall never be considered sealed if it is not for Mankind [ie valid for before creation, after creation to Qiyamah and then after Qiyamah].
So a sealed Scripture applicable for all previous scriptures, thus it is said in the Qur'an- “Verily, We have revealed the Reminder (i.e. the Qur’an) to you so that you may explain to the people what has been revealed to them…” [16:44]. Besides this, as humans are free willed, criminals must disagree with their prophets and shall adopt falsehood on them in the day of Judgement and a Prophet of God must be proof blameless against their accusation, thus they shall need much more witness than those are against them to clean themselves. Thus according to Qur'an Muslims shall be the witness in favor of all Prophets and against Mankind. This is the reason that 71% of the Qur'an is for non-Muslims, yet Muslims are memorizing those only for rescuing Prophets blamelessly from any kind of accusation by non-Muslims in the day of Judgement. Thus Qur'an needed to assure Mankind for its content that a- "Falsehood shall not come to it from before it nor from behind". Now you may understand the logics behind relying on Quranic Texts.
So without the support of Qur'an, we can not take any scriptural Proof as truth.
"But Bro, there is a lot of contradictions within Quran which one may find in the net."
Yeah, and this is the challenge for you, you consider knowledgeable or may say you have scriptural knowledge only if you find answers or may say, able to answer all those contradictions- logically, scientifically or scripturally or any acceptable method.
"Ok, I understand, but I want to know how you justify Pharaoh during Moses as Ramesses- II?"
Bro, I can only justify this in the following way but can not assure you that is 100% Truth.
When he [Moses] reached full age and was firmly established (in life), We bestowed on him wisdom and knowledge: for thus do We reward those who do good.-Qur'an 28:14
Again, according to Quranic verses 28:25-29, in Midian, Moses offered to help two girls to water their flocks. The father of the girls agreed to marry one of them to Moses under the condition that he serves him for 8 years and voluntarily for 2 more years to make it 10 years. It is not clear from the Quranic verses if Moses fulfilled 8 or 10 years in Midian. Yet, in any case, we can take any of it that Moses' stay in Midian.
Again, several pieces of information can be obtained from other Quranic verses which suggest that Moses stayed in Egypt for a considerable period of time, measured in years. Firstly, the reference to the affliction of years of droughts and shortage of crops [Qur'an 7:131] and then a period of a good time. And this period shall never be more than 21 yrs to make his reign 66yrs as Manetho said and if we consider pharaoh decreed to kill Israeli sons soon after ascending the throne because Aaron was nearly 5 yrs older than Moses yet not killed.
All these matches with Ramesses- II, thus he is justified as he reigned 66 yrs [5+30+10+21??] 2 months if we consider Manetho is right [it is because, if we consider Pharaoh takes 40 years to release Hebrews then it becomes 5+30+10+40= 85 yrs]. Actually, you able to come to a conclusion only when you combined Roman, Egyptian, Babylonian kingship with the Historic event and Archeological proof in a single time line that will not contradict Quran.
NB: We Muslims do not believe any scholars, but only- that is scriptural, logically, scientifically can be proved as Truth.
Now, is there anyone among the Jewish and Christian Scholars to cross us? We will be highly glad if you have enough "Quranic contradiction" data related to this article, for placing them here to refute us.
Torah [Old Testament]
Gospel [New Testament]
The Identification Of Pharaoh During The Time Of Moses by MSM Saifullah, Abdullah David, and Mohammad Ghoniem.